Etika Profesi dan Pengembangan Diri

Tugas 8
Kelompok 8 :
Tyas Kristyana           682012063
Gishella Wahongan     682012061
Cadwell Rumagit        682012058
Vinilia Kamuh             682012049
Guido Walujan            682012042


3 (tiga) kategori cybercrisme :
1.      Cyberpiracy

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2.      Cybertrespass

Contoh Kasus Cybercrime di Indonesia
Pencurian dan penggunaan account Internet milik orang lain. Salah satu kesulitan dari sebuah ISP (Internet Service Provider) adalah adanya account pelanggan mereka yang dicuri dan digunakan secara tidak sah. Berbeda dengan pencurian yang dilakukan secara fisik, pencurian account cukup menangkap userid dan password saja. Hanya informasi yang dicuri.                                                                                  
Sementara itu orang yang kecurian tidak merasakan hilangnya benda yang dicuri. Pencurian baru terasa efeknya jika informasi ini digunakan oleh yang tidak berhak. Akibat dari pencurian ini, penggunaan dibebani biaya penggunaan acocunt tersebut. Kasus ini banyak terjadi di ISP. Namun yang pernah diangkat adalah penggunaan account curian oleh dua Warnet di Bandung. Membajak situs web. Salah satu kegiatan yang sering dilakukan oleh cracker adalah mengubah halaman web, yang dikenal dengan istilah deface. Pembajakan dapat dilakukan dengan mengeksploitasi lubang keamanan. Sekitar 4 bulan yang lalu, statistik di Indonesia menunjukkan satu (1) situs web dibajak setiap harinya. Probing dan port scanning. Salah satu langkah yang dilakukan cracker sebelum masuk ke server yang ditargetkan adalah melakukan pengintaian. Cara yang dilakukan adalah dengan melakukan port scanning atau probing untuk melihat servis-servis apa saja yang tersedia di server target. Sebagai contoh, hasil scanning dapat menunjukkan bahwa server target menjalankan program web server Apache, mail server Sendmail, dan seterusnya. Analogi hal ini dengan dunia nyata adalah dengan melihat-lihat apakah pintu rumah anda terkunci, merek kunci yang digunakan, jendela mana yang terbuka, apakah pagar terkunci (menggunakan firewall atau tidak) dan seterusnya. Yang bersangkutan memang belum melakukan kegiatan pencurian atau penyerangan, akan tetapi kegiatan yang dilakukan sudah mencurigakan. Berbagai program yang digunakan untuk melakukan probing atau port scanning ini dapat diperoleh secara gratis di Internet. Salah satu program yang paling populer adalah nmap (untuk sistem yang berbasis UNIX, Linux) dan Superscan (untuk sistem yang berbasis Microsoft Windows).                                                                                            
Selain mengidentifikasi port, nmap juga bahkan dapat mengidentifikasi jenis operating system yang digunakan. Sedemikian kompleksnya bentuk kejahatan mayantara dan permasalahnnya menunjukan perlunya seorang profesional yang secara khusus membidangi permasalahan tersebut untuk mengatasi atau setidaknya mencegah tindak kejahatan cyber dengan keahlian yang dimilikinya. Demikian pula dengan perangkat hukum atau bahkan hakimnya sekalipun perlu dibekali pengetahuan yang cukup mengenai kejahatan mayantara ini disamping tersedianya sarana yuridis (produk undang-undang) untuk menjerat sang pelaku.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA:
a.       Lestari Sri, Prasetya, “Kasus Kejahatan Komputer” Artikel
b.      Prabowo W. Onno, “Belajar Menjadi hacker” Artikel
d.      http://fauzzi23.blogspot.com/definisi_hacer di ambil pada tanggal 1 Nopember 2008


3.      Cybervandalism

KOMPAS.com — Perang cyber telah melangkah lebih jauh. Peralatan "perang" ini pun semakin beragam dan canggih. Salah satunya adalah virus atau malware. Bahkan, kini muncul virus/malwareyang sangat canggih dan kompleks dalam bentuk attack toolkit.
Virus berbahaya tersebut adalah adalah "Flame". Virus yang ditemukan oleh tim Kaspersky Lab ini dirancang khusus untuk memata-matai pengguna komputer yang terinfeksi dengan berbagai cara. Seperti malware Stuxnet dan Duqu yang sempat membuat kacau proyek reaktor nuklir milik Iran, Flame disinyalir merupakan "senjata cyber" yang sengaja diluncurkan oleh sebuah negara untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu.
"Malware Flame sepertinya adalah jenjang selanjutnya dari perang (cyber). Hal yang penting diketahui adalah bahwa senjata cyber seperti ini bisa digunakan untuk menyerang negara mana pun," ujar Eugene Kaspersky, CEO dan pendiri Kaspersky Lab, dalam sebuah pernyataan yang dikutip oleh Wired.


KasperskyArea sebaran dan jumlah kasus malware Flame
Jika Stuxnet memiliki target spesifik berupa perangkat industri, Flame secara khusus mengincar kalangan bisnis dan universitas, serta hanya menginfeksi tak lebih dari 5.000 komputer pribadi di seluruh dunia, diduga melalui jaringan atau USB Flashdisk.
Penyebaran terbatas tersebut disinyalir memiliki tujuan untuk menghindari pendeteksian selama mungkin. Flame diperkirakan telah beredar sejak 2010, berdekatan dengan waktu penemuan Stuxnet yang kepergok karena menyebar terlalu liar. Kaspersky Lab baru menemukan Flame dua minggu lalu.
"Dilihat dari kecanggihan dan area sebarannya yang melingkupi negara-negara tertentu di Timur Tengah, tak diragukan lagi, ini (Flame) disponsori oleh sebuah negara," ungkap Alexander Gostev, Kepala Riset dan Analisis Global Kaspersky dalam blognya.
Gostev mengategorikan pembuat malware dalam tiga golongan berdasarkan kompleksitas dan karakteristik serangan, yaitu hacktivist, penjahat cyber, dan negara (nation-state). Menurutnya, Flame masuk dalam kategori yang disebut terakhir. Gostev juga mengatakan bahwa Flame memberikan arah baru bagi perang dan spionase digital.
Flame menginfeksi sejumlah komputer di negara-negara tertentu di Timur Tengah, termasuk Iran, Palestina, Israel, Lebanon, dan Suriah. Pembuat malware ini belum diketahui.
Berbeda dengan Stuxnet yang juga dikategorikan sebagai "senjata cyber", Flame sepertinya didesain bukan untuk merusak sistem, melainkan untuk mengumpulkan data dengan cara memata-matai pengguna komputer yang terinfeksi.
Saat aktif di komputer, Flame mendeteksi lalu lintas jaringan dan menyadap percakapan audio, baik yang dilakukan melalui software, seperti Skype, maupun dengan cara mengaktifkan mikrofon komputer. 
Malware ini juga sanggup merekam ketikan keyboard, mengambil screenshot, mencegat e-mail, bahkan mendeteksi dan mencuri data dari perangkat bluetooth.
Data-data curian yang dikumpulkan Flame kemudian dienkripsi dan dikirimkan ke sejumlah domain "Command and Control" milik pembuatnya yang tersebar di seluruh dunia dan bisa diganti ke alamat lain kapan saja apabila domain yang bersangkutan ditutup atau ditinggalkan. Begitu canggihnya fungsi Flame, para ahli diperkirakan butuh waktu bertahun-tahun untuk mempelajari hal-hal apa yang bisa—dan akan—dilakukan malware tersebut.
Muncul rumor bahwa serangan senjata cyber yang belakangan muncul bisa jadi ditujukan untuk menekan Iran dalam negosiasi program nuklirnya. Flame pertama kali ditemukan di komputer milik Kementerian Minyak Iran.
Selain Flame, ditemukan juga malware lain bernama "Viper" yang berusaha menghapus data dari server.

PENYEBAB TERJADINYA CYBERCRIME
1.      mahalnya software yang asli.
2.      Kelalaian pengguna komputer. Hal ini merupakan salah satu penyebab utama kejahatan komputer.
3.      Mudah dilakukan dengan resiko keamanan yang kecil dan tidak diperlukan peralatan yang super modern. Walaupun kejahatan komputer mudah untuk dilakukan tetapi akan sangat sulit untuk melacaknya, sehingga ini mendorong para pelaku kejahatan untuk terus melakukan hal ini.
4.      Para pelaku merupakan orang yang pada umumnya cerdas, mempunyai rasa ingin tahu yang besar, dan fanatik akan teknologi komputer. Pengetahuan pelaku kejahatan komputer tentang cara kerja sebuah komputer jauh diatas operator komputer.
5.      Sistem keamanan jaringan yang lemah.
6.       Kurangnya perhatian masyarakat. Masyarakat dan penegak hukum saat ini masih memberi perhatian yang sangat besar terhadap kejahatan konvensional. Pada kenyataannya para pelaku kejahatan komputer masih terus melakukan aksi kejahatannya


PENANGGULANGAN CYBERCRIME

1.      Mengamankan sistem
1)      Tujuan yang nyata dari sebuah sistem keamanan adalah mencegah adanya perusakan bagian dalam sistem karena dimasuki oleh pemakai yang tidak diinginkan. Pengamanan sistem secara terintegrasi sangat diperlukan untuk meminimalisasikan kemungkinan perusakan tersebut:
2)      Membangun sebuah keamanan sistem harus merupakan langkah-langkah yang terintegrasi pada keseluruhan subsistemnya, dengan tujuan dapat mempersempit atau bahkan menutup adanya celah-celah unauthorized actions yang merugikan
3)      Pengamanan secara personal dapat dilakukan mulai dari tahap instalasi sistem sampai akhirnya menuju ke tahap pengamanan fisik dan pengamanan data.
4)      Pengaman akan adanya penyerangan sistem melaui jaringan juga dapat dilakukan dengan melakukan pengamanan FTP, SMTP, Telnet dan pengamanan Web Server.
5)      Berbagai perangkat lunak keamanan sistem meliputi :
·         Internet Firewall
·         Kriptografi
·         Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

2.      Penanggulangan Global

Beberapa langkah penting yang harus dilakukan setiap negara dalam penanggulangan cybercrime adalah:
·         melakukan modernisasi hukum pidana nasional beserta hukum acaranya
·         meningkatkan sistem pengamanan jaringan komputer nasional sesuai standar internasional
·         meningkatkan pemahaman serta keahlian aparatur penegak hukum mengenai upaya pencegahan, investigasi dan penuntutan perkara-perkara yang berhubungan dengan cybercrime
·         meningkatkan kesadaran warga negara mengenai masalah cybercrime serta pentingnya mencegah kejahatan tersebut terjadi
·         meningkatkan kerjasama antarnegara, baik bilateral, regional maupun multilateral, dalam upaya penanganan cybercrime

3.      Perlunya Dukungan Lembaga Khusus
·         Lembaga-lembaga khusus, baik milik pemerintah maupun NGO (Non Government Organization), diperlukan sebagai upaya penanggulangan kejahatan di internet
·         Amerika Serikat memiliki komputer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) sebagai sebuah divisi khusus dari U.S. Departement of Justice. Institusi ini memberikan informasi tentang cybercrime, melakukan sosialisasi secara intensif kepada masyarakat, serta melakukan riset-riset khusus dalam penanggulangan cybercrime
·         Indonesia sendiri sebenarnya sudah memiliki IDCERT (Indonesia Computer Emergency Rensponse Team). Unit ini merupakan point of contact bagi orang untuk melaporkan masalah-masalah keamanan computer



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«Oldest   ‹Older   1 – 200 of 362   Newer›   Newest»
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